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Breeding MAGIC General guideline for the establishment of the MAGIC nucleus herd: Although starting off with 50% Gir animals the final aim will be to stabilize the “MAGIC” breed at  - 25% Gir - 65% Bos Taurus (with no single breed contributor surpassing 25% and as evenly divided between Bos Taurus dairy and  Bos Taurus dual purpose breeds as possible)  - 10% Sahiwal or other Bos Indicus (preferably other than Gir)  Bos Taurus dairy breeds initially utilized in breed development and allowed are Holstein, Ayrshire, Guernsey and Jersey. Bos Taurus dual purpose breeds initially utilized in breed development and allowed are Milking Shorthorn, Scandinavian Red  (Danish Red, Swedish Red, Norwegian Red and Finish Ayrshire), Illawarra, MRI, Montbeliard,  Fleckvieh and Brown Swiss.   All pure-bred pedigree sires used in breed development should be exceptional and top of their breeds in Total Performance  Index, production, type and/or fertility. Of all sires used the greatest influence in breed development should be exerted by  “C.A. Sansão”, the world’s best Dairy Gir sire ever.  For all MAGIC animals disqualifying and strict culling reasons are:   Poor production if not caused by restrictive feeding and management   Obvious display of signs of suffering heat stress as breathing through open mouth with tongue out and favouring wet  and muddy places to lie down   Poor fertility or gynaecological conditions impairing fertility as cystic ovarian disease, etc.   Poor temperament and failure to let down milk without the calf present   Bad udder score to the degree that milkability is impaired or repeated mastitis caused   Bad feet and legs score and hoof quality to the degree that free locomotion is hampered or lameness is caused by sole  ulcers, heel erosion or hoof abscesses   “A good cow has no colour” but selection should be done against black hair coat as this is the colour most prone to Tsetse fly attack and which is mostly associated with causing excessive heat stress in the animal. Technical guideline for the MAGIC breed development: 1. MAGIC 50 (MAGIC with 50% Gir blood) 1. As no pure-bred Gir animals are available in Kenya yet all MAGIC 50 will initially be produces as F1 first crosses of  “C.A. Sansão” on selected Bos Taurus * Bos Indicus cross-bred cows  2. As soon as additional high quality pure-bred Gir sires will become available (hopefully from 2015) these will also be  used on selected Bos Taurus * Bos Indicus cross-bred cows to produce alternate lines of Magic 50 cows and sires   3. Experimenting will start to produce F2 MAGIC 50 animals and if successful in the female offspring we will consider to  use their male counterparts as MAGIC 50 sires, too. Both grand-sires must be 100% Gir but are exchangeable.  Success is defined by uniformity in F2, they should not be distinguishable from F1 MAGIC 50 animals and F2 splitting  of the genotype should not be noticeable. This is achievable by great genetic diversity and many different breed  components in the original Bos Taurus * Bos Indicus cross-bred females used.  It might be worthwhile to also do some experimentation with very close line breeding, whereby both grand-sires on  maternal and paternal side will be “C.A. Sansão”. Some absolutely exceptional cows and sires were produced this way.  Examples: Profana (2* ”Vale Ouro de Brasilia”), Garbha (2* “Radar dos Pocoes”, Damion (2* same grand-dam)  2. MAGIC 25 (MAGIC with 25% Gir blood)  1. Initially the majority of MAGIC 25 will be produced by using MAGIC 50 Sires (both F1 and F2) on a great variety of cross-bred and pure-bred cows, for example: 2. In the nucleus herd MAGIC 25 can also be produced by two other approaches: a) b)                                                                                                                                           Picture soon to follow 3. MAGIC (as a fully stabilized breed) In the final breed stabilization phase MAGIC 25 sires obtained through use of these two different approaches in the nucleus  herd will be used on the remaining population of MAGIC 25 cows, with much care and emphasizes being placed upon  maintaining an as high as possible degree of diversity in breed composition and ancestry. All resulting offspring can now be  called MAGIC if they fulfil the selection criteria and don’t display any of the culling reasons described above.   Thereafter MAGIC breeding can be handled as in a pure-bred population. Practical guideline for the MAGIC breed development: For a farmer who wants to upgrade his present herd to MAGIC breed status a) Starting with a pure-bred Bos Taurus herd or Bos Taurus cross-bred herd: 1. Choose the MAGIC 50 sire which has the least percentage of the breed(s) originally started out with to obtain F1 2.  On the F1 generation use a MAGIC 25 sire, again selecting the one whose breeding contains the least percent of the  breeds that are still present in your F1   3.  On F2 and all following generations always choose the MAGIC sire which offers the greatest diversity to the breed  percentages and ancestry already present in your herd   b) Starting with a herd of more than 50 % Bos Indicus blood: 1. Start by using a MAGIC 25 sire with the smallest percentage of other Bos Indicus blood available  2.  On the next generation choose again a MAGIC 25 sire with the smallest percentage of other Bos Indicus genetics available  and which offers the greatest diversity to the breed percentages and ancestry already present   3.  On all following generations always choose a MAGIC sire which offers the greatest diversity to the breed components and  ancestry already present in your herd   For a farmer who wants to enhance his present purebred but non pedigree herd Using the full range of MAGIC sires (MAGIC 50, MAGIC 25 and MAGIC) enables you to introduce some heterosis and all the  associated advantages into pure-bred Bos Taurus herds without compromising the general appearance of the herd. This is  particularly helpful to increase the overall profitability of the herd.   a) For producing a limited amount of heterosis and all the advantages associated therewith (especially better fertility, health and  longevity) without changing the general appearance of your herd use a MAGIC 25 bull whose sire is from the same breed or  the breed closest related or resembling your present herd   b) For producing a greater amount of heterosis and all the advantages associated therewith (especially better fertility, health  and longevity) with only slightly changing the general appearance of your herd use a MAGIC 25 bull which best as possible by  appearance resembles your herd and whose sire is from a breed not related but resembling your present herd (Brown Swiss on  Jersey, Scandinavian Red or Fleckvieh on Ayrshire or Holstein and vice versa)   c) For producing the greatest amount of heterosis and all the advantages associated therewith (especially better fertility, health  and longevity) without completely loosing the general appearance of your herd use a MAGIC 50 bull whose dam by appearance  best resembles your herd.   Clarification: All breed-percentages, Bos Taurus/Bos Indicus fractions and even sire influences in this web-book are expressed as a  numeric percent value. Theoretically this can only be calculated correctly when done for F1 hybrids of pure-bred parentage.   All percent values calculated for F2 and later generations are only the “average of all possibilities” of the expression of the  genetic components for each animal. But for all practical purposes this value is serving it’s purpose just fine and helps to keep  track of the breed composition of the whole population as well as that of individual animals.  By Scandinavian Red sire G Edbo out of cow no. 365 I/S By MAGIC50 Sire No. 299 out of cow no. 304 I/S Sire Dam  Sire Dam  Sire Dam  Sire Dam